Population dynamics and demographic transformations are among the key challenges facing the international community and have major implications for sustainable development, in particular with regard to food security, use of natural resources and consumption of energy. During the reporting period, the United Nations system has increased its efforts to be more effective in advocating for and assisting countries in addressing challenges arising from changing population patterns. In response to General Assembly resolution 65/234 on the extension of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development Beyond 2014, CEB addressed the issue of population dynamics and acknowledged that the recent passage of the 7 billion world population milestone provided impetus to reflect on the impact of demographic change on sustainable development. The Board asserted that addressing the variety of population challenges requires a joint effort by all stakeholders. Under the leadership of the United Nations Population Fund and in collaboration with organizations of the United Nations system, CEB initiated the development of a joint report that would address population dynamics from a United Nations system perspective and provide guidance for a coordinated response to population realities and anticipated trends.